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Big fundamental question ? - How can we extract some of the enormous amount of energy in form of clean hydrogen fuel out of water economically? We found the answer..

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eH2FUEL

From Water

  


"New ideas are always criticized - not because an idea lacks merit, but because it might turn out to be workable, which would threaten the reputations of many people

whose opinions conflict with it.Some people may even lose their jobs."  - Physicist, requested anonymity

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                                                                                                       WATER STRUCTURE AND SCIENCE

                                                         
               


Elemental composition of H2O:

Symbol

Element

Atomic weight

Number of atoms

Mass percent

H

Hydrogen

1.007947

2

11.1899 %

O

Oxygen

15.99943

1

88.8101 %



Water is a very tiny molecule. In reality, “tiny” doesn’t do justice in describing the size, and “great” does not capture the number of molecules that are present in one liter of water, for example. So how many water molecules are there in one liter?

And how many moles of water are there in one liter?

The mass of water is approximately 1 kilogram (1000 grams) under usual circumstances, it and has a molecular weight of 18.0153 g/mol. Therefore, the concentration of water in pure water is 55.509 molar or 55.345 mol L-1 (25°C).

   n = W / Mw = 1000 / 18.0153 = 55.509 moles

What is a Mole

A mole is the amount of a substance that contains as many elementary entities (atoms, molecules or ions) as there are atoms in 0.012 kilogram (or 12 grams) of carbon-12, where the carbon-12 atoms are unbound, at rest and in their ground state. This number is known as the Avogadro constant, and it is determined empirically. The currently accepted value is 6.02214179(30) × 1023 mol-1 (2007 CODATA). The best way to understand the meaning of the term "mole" is to compare it to terms such as dozen. Just as one dozen is equal to 12, one mole is equal to 6.02214179(30) × 1023. Mole is an absolute number (having no units) and can describe any type of elementary object, although the mole's use is usually limited to measurement of subatomic, atomic, and molecular structures. The term is used because it is much easier to say, for example, 1 mole of carbon atoms, than it is to say 6.02214179(30) × 1023 carbon atoms. Likewise, we can describe the number of entities as a multiple or fraction of 1 mole, e.g. 2 mole or 0.5 moles.

So there are  55.509 moles in one liter of water.

We then multiply  55.509 (moles) by 6.022∙1023 (Avogadro constant) = 3.34 ∙1025 molecules:

n ∙ N0 = 55.509 ∙ 6.022∙1023 = 3.34 ∙1025 molecules

or a total of 33.4 million- million- million- million molecules in one liter of water.

And how big is  Avogadro's number?

Avogadro constant NA6.022 141 79(30) × 1023 mol–1 5.0 × 10–8 1

Or 602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (6.02 x 1023).This is an incredibly large number - almost a trillion trillion or about 602 sextillion. 

   To better visualize Avogadro's number. Here are a few estimates:

6.02 x 1023( is number of molecules in one mole), is enormous  number? If you count out loud starting with the number "one" at the rate of one count every second, it would take you about 1,909,577,942,668,696 years to finish. This is roughly 960,000 times the estimated lifetime of our universe (assuming 20 Billion years). If we were able to count atoms at faster rate of 10 million per second, it would take about 2 billion years to count the atoms in one mole. Or, if molecules of water were as thick as a penny, about 1 millimeter, a mole high stack of pennies would be 63,000 light  years high! If we stack NA pennies on top of one another, the stack of pennies could reach the sun and back almost 500 million times! A mole of marbles would spread over the surface of the earth, and produce a layer about 50 miles thick. A mole of sand, spread over the United States, would produce a layer 3 inches deep. A mole of dollars could not be spent at the rate of a billion dollars a day over a trillion years. Yet that is the number of molecules in just 18 g of water (one mole).

 

This large number 33.4 million- million- million- million molecules represents the total number of molecules in one liter of water. Typically,  H2O consists of two (1.00794 standard atomic weight) hydrogen atoms attached to each oxygen atom, which is 16 times heavier (15.9994 standard atomic weight).

 Molar Mass: 18.015268 g/mol        1g = .055509914070653 mol

H2O = 1.00794 +1.00794 + 15.9994 = 18. 0153 gram per mole

Liquid, maximum density: 999.97495 kg/m3 at 3.984 °C

1 m(cubic meter) is equivalent to:

  1,000 liters (exactly) weighing 999.97495 kg

      ~35.3 cubic feet (approximately)

Cubic decimeter

The volume of a cube of side length one decimeter (0.1 m), equal to a liter

1 dm3 = 0.001 m3 = 1 L

1 L ≈ 0.0353146667 cubic foot  

1 cubic foot = 28.316846592 liters


    Although 80% of the electrons in water are involved in bonding, water in the liquid state does not “stay together”. Rather, the hydrogen atoms are constantly exchanging between water molecules due to protonation/deprotonation processes. Both acids and bases catalyze this exchange, and even when at its slowest (at pH 7), the average lifetime of an intact H2O molecule is less than a millisecond. This brief period is much longer than the timescales encountered during investigations into water's hydrogen bonding or hydration properties, so water is usually treated as a permanent structure.

 

    As is found in molecular hydrogen (H2), the hydrogen atoms in water (H2O)  possess parallel (paramagnetic ortho-H2O, magnetic moment = 1) or anti-parallel (nonmagnetic para-H2O, magnetic moment = 0) nuclear spin. The equilibrium ratio of these nuclear spin states in H2O is all para at zero Kelvin, where the molecules have no rotational spin in their ground state, shifting to 3:1ortho: para at less cold temperatures (>50 K); the equilibrium taking months to establish itself in ice (or gas) and nearly an hour in ambient water. This means that liquid H2O effectively consists of a mixture of non-identical molecules, and the properties of pure liquid ortho-H2O or para-H2O are unknown. The differences in the properties of these two forms of water are expected to be greater in an electric field, which may be imposed externally, from surfaces or from water clustering itself. Many materials preferentially adsorb para-H2O due to its non-rotation ground state. The apparent difference in energy between the two states is a significant 1-2 kJ mol-1, far greater than expected from spin-spin interactions (< μJ mol-1). It has been suggested that structural rearrangements may be induced by ortho-H2O : para-H2O conversion, as it is possible that hydrogen bonds between para-H2O, possessing no ground state spin, are stronger and last longer than hydrogen bonds between ortho-H2O. It is thus possible that ortho-H2O and para-H2O form separate hydrogen bonded clusters.  


      Liquid water consists of a mixture of molecules and ions, including H2O, HDO, H3O+ and OH-.A 'standard' water (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water) has been proposed. 'Pure liquid water', meaning consisting of just H2O molecules, only exists in computer simulations. Even 'just H2O' consists of a mixture of 'ortho' and 'para' forms. Avoiding this complexity, 'water' is normally taken to mean H2O molecules, without consideration over its magnetic state. Water molecules (H2O) are symmetric (point group C) with two mirror planes of symmetry and a 2-fold rotation axis. The hydrogen atoms may possess parallel or antiparallel nuclear spin The water molecule consists of two light atoms (H) and a relatively heavy atom (O). The approximately 16-fold difference in mass gives rise to its ease of rotation and the significant relative movements of the hydrogen nuclei, which are in constant and significant relative movement.

  

Mw (H2O) = 2 VSMOW, or Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water, is an isotopic water standard defined in 1968 by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Despite the extremely misleading phrase "ocean water", VSMOW refers to pure water (H2O) and does not include any salt or other substances usually found in seawater. VSMOW serves as a reference standard for comparing hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios, mostly in water samples. Very pure, distilled VSMOW water is also used for making high accuracy measurement of water’s physical properties and for defining laboratory standards since it is considered to be representative of “average ocean water”, in effect representing the water content of Earth.

VSMOW is a recalibration of the original SMOW definition and was created in 1967 by Harmon Craig and other researchers from Scripps Institution of Oceanography who mixed distilled ocean waters collected from different spots around the globe. VSMOW remains one of the major isotopic water benchmarks in use today. The isotopic composition of VSMOW water is specified as ratios of the molar abundance of the rare isotope in question divided by that of its most common isotope and is expressed as parts per million (ppm). For instance 16O (the most common isotope of oxygen with eight protons and eight neutrons) is roughly 2,632 times more prevalent in sea water than is 17O (with an additional neutron). The isotopic ratios of VSMOW water are defined as follows:

2H / 1H = 155.76 ±0.1 ppm (a ratio of 1 part per approximately 6420 parts)

3H / 1H = 1.85 ±0.36 × 10-11 ppm (a ratio of 1 part per approximately 5.41 × 1016 parts, ignored for physical properties-related work)

18O / 16O = 2005.20 ±0.43 ppm (a ratio of 1 part per approximately 498.7 parts)

17O / 16O = 379.9 ±1.6 ppm (a ratio of 1 part per approximately 2632 parts)


How many moles of water are there in one liter? Water approximates 1 kilogram 999.97495 g or (1000 grams) per liter under usual circumstances with a molecular weight of 18.0153. Therefore, the concentration of water in pure water is 55.508 molar or H2O: 55.345 mol L-1 (25°C). The concentration of hydrogen in solid hydrogen is 88 grams per liter / molecular weight 2.016 = 43.7 molar, at standard temperature and pressure (273.15 K, 101 325 Pa) we get a volume per mole of 8.314570*273.15/101325 = 0.02241*1000=22.4142 liters in cubic meter or  22.4 liter.


Conversion factor between atomic mass units and grams


One mole of a substance always contains almost exactly the relative atomic mass or molar mass of that substance (which is the concept of molar mass), expressed in grams; however, this is almost never true for the atomic mass.

Conversely, a  one cubic meter (m3 )contains 1000/22.4(0oC) = 44.64 mole. Thus, the density in kg/m3 is 0.0446 times the average molecular mass. The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated, as MW is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the molecular mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). Thus, it is a dimension.

Examples: 0.0899 kg/m3, NA Appearance colorless Atomic properties Atomic weight 1. 00794 amu Atomic radius (ca: molecular mass is 2, gives density of 0.089 kg/m3

1 mole of an ideal gas has a volume of:

22.4 liters (22.4L) at S.T.P. [Standard Temperature and Pressure, 0oC (273.15K) and 101.3kPa (1 atm)]

However in practice 24.47 liters (24.47L) at S.L.C [Standard Laboratory Conditions, 25oC (298K) and 101.3kPa (1atm)]is more accurate measurement.


 Water contains two atoms of the chemical element hydrogen. The electrically neutral atom contains a single positively-charged proton and a single negatively-charged electron bound to the nucleus by the Coulomb force. The most abundant isotope, hydrogen-1, protium, or light hydrogen, contains no neutrons; other isotopes contain one or more neutrons. Our attention is primarily focused to hydrogen-1. and Oxygen, however what is most often not stated that water contains small amount 0.0115% of Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, that is a stable isotope of hydrogen. This seemingly small amount of  Deuterium 0.0115% in one liter of water for example, when calculated as actual number of molecules, would represent some 3 841 million- million- million  molecules of heavy hydrogen. This is huge number of heavy water molecules zipping round in water when compared to 0.0115%. Deuterium occurs in trace amounts naturally as deuterium gas, written 2H2 or D2, but most natural occurrence in the universe is bonded with a typical 1H atom, a gas called hydrogen deuteride (HD or 1H2H). The natural deuterium abundance seems to be a very similar fraction of hydrogen, wherever hydrogen is found. Thus, the existence of deuterium at a low but constant fraction in all hydrogen.

Our question is simple, how does this small percentage, but huge number of molecules of heavy hydrogen effect energy levels of regular hydrogen?

In the gaseous state, matter is made of particles (atoms or molecules) that are not attached to each other. The intermolecular or inter-atomic forces that hold solids and liquids have been overcome by the motion of the molecules. The particles of a gas have too much thermal energy to stay attached to each other. The motion and vibration of the atoms pull the individual molecules apart from each other.

 

This web site  http://www1.lsbu.ac.uk/water/index2.htmlpresents lot of scientific information and outstanding review of about every aspect of properties of water and we used in our exerts above, additional source of information was http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page and CRC press Handbook of Chemistry and Physics
 David R.Lide 86 th Edition 2005-2006